Custom computer hardware too expensive for universities to build

According to Mary Jane Irwin interviewed by Leah Hoffman

Most of our work since then has been this simulation-based work. There’s been very little building.

Is that because of cost?

It’s really, really expensive these days to build custom hardware at the current or near-current technology node. You just can’t afford to do it at a university, so most architects do simulation-based research. Some design with FPGAs, and that’s great, but the number of people building custom hardware in universities has dwindled to almost nothing.